Glossary

Artificial intelligence (AI)

A collective term for the scientific field that studies the creation of machines and computer programs that display intelligent behavior. AI research encompasses numerous disciplines, including everything from studying philosophical issues to developing tangible technological solutions in such areas as medical diagnostics.

Cardiology

The field of medicine dealing with the functions and diseases of the heart.

Cloud

Cloud computing, meaning that computer power is distributed over the internet or company-specific intranets and not on individual computers.

Critical infrastructure

Basic infrastructure that is essential for the functioning of society, such as bridges and electricity and water supply.

Crypto

Equipment that uses mathematical manipulations (algorithms and keys) to encrypt information, so that it can be interpreted or read only by the intended recipient. To read encrypted information, the recipient must have the correct key and algorithm.

Hybrid threat, hybrid warfare

A type of threat or warfare blending conventional military warfare, irregular warfare and civil warfare, launched against a common target at various stages of a conflict. This can take the form of attempts to disrupt or wipe out critical social functions and influence decision-makers and populations.

Integrated diagnostics

Diagnostic collaboration between different medical specialties, for example, between pathologists and radiologists for diagnosing, treating and monitoring cancer patients. Integrated diagnostics is facilitated by digital technology, computer algorithms, clinical workflows and extended reporting to the patient’s physician.

Machine learning

A discipline within AI (see above) where algorithms (computer programs) learn to solve tasks using analyzed data. One example involves allowing a program to train on a large sampling of known test images to learn to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, after which the program can also make accurate predictions regarding unfamiliar images.

Mammography

A radiology-based breast examination used to detect breast cancer at an early stage in asymptomatic women.

Multidisciplinary conferences

Meetings where representatives of various medical specialties—physicians, radiologists, pathologists, surgeons and oncologists—gather to discuss all of the findings related to a specific cancer patient and jointly decide on the best treatment strategy.

Operational technology (OT)

Hardware and/or software that controls and monitors devices, such as valves and pumps, that are part of a physical process. The terms industrial control systems (ICS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are also commonly used to denote operational technology systems.

Orthopaedics

A surgical specialty for disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system, meaning the skeleton, joints, tendons, other connective tissue and peripheral nerves.

Osteoarthritis

Arthritis or osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in the joints where the cartilage in one or several of the body’s joints gradually breaks down.

Pathology

A specialized medical area that uses tissues and body fluids for diagnostic purposes.

Picture archiving and communication system (PACS)

An IT system for managing medical images, such as radiology images.

Precision medicine

Customized treatment for a particular patient based on their unique genetic profile and biomarkers in the form of albumin.

Process industry

A type of automated manufacturing industry with several manufacturing processes, such as the paper industry, the petrochemical industry, and iron and steelworks.

Radiology

A health science discipline and medical specialty that uses technologies for imaging the human body, such as X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound.

Radiology information system (RIS)

An IT system for managing radiology patient data, such as appointment bookings, patient information and dictations at radiology clinics.

Trauma surgery

Surgical procedure on a patient with, for example, a bone fracture or life-threatening injury. Any type of external injury to the body is classified as a trauma in the medical sense.

Vendor-neutral archive (VNA)

IT solution for managing and archiving files such as medical images, audio files and film sequences in a shared multimedia archive.

Virtual private network (VPN)

A technology used to create a secure connection or “tunnel” between two points along an  unsecured data network, such as the internet.

Visualization table

Large, interactive touch screen with an image-viewing program that enables interaction with 3D images of human and animal bodies.